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The following glossary was provided by the
Professional Baseball Athletic Trainers Society

AC Joint Acromioclavicular joint; joint of the shoulder where acromio process of the scapula and the distal end of the clavicle meet; most shoulder separations occur at this joint.
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Abscess An infection which produces pus; can be the result of a blister, callus, penetrating wound or laceration.
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Adhesion Abnormal adherence of collagen fibers to surrounding structures during immobilization following trauma or as a complication of surgery which restricts normal elasticity of the structures involved.
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Aerobic Exercise in which energy needed is supplied by oxygen inspired and is required for sustained periods of vigorous exercise with a continually high pulse rate.
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Anabolic Steroids Steroids that promote tissue growth by creating protein in an attempt to enhance muscle growth. The main anabolic steroid is testosterone (male sex hormone).
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Anaerobic Exercise without the use of oxygen as an energy source; short bursts of vigorous exercise.
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Anterior In front of; the front surface of.
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Anterior Compartment Syndrome Condition in which swelling within the anterior compartment of the lower leg jeopardizes the viability of the muscles, nerves, and arteries that serve the foot. In severe cases, emergency surgery is necessary to relieve the swelling and pressure.
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Anterior Cruciate Ligment (ACL) A primary stabilizing ligament within the center of the knee joint that prevents hyperextension and excessive rotation of the joint. A complete tear of the ACL necessitating reconstruction could require up to 12 months of rehabilitation.
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Anterior Talofibular Ligament (ATL) A ligament of the ankle that connects the fibula (lateral ankle bone) to the talus. This ligament is often subject to sprains.
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Anti-Inflammatory Any agent which prevents inflammation, such as aspirin or ibuprofen.
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Anteriogram A film demonstrating arteries after injection of a dye.
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Arthrogram X-ray technique for joints using air and/or dye injected into the affected area; useful in diagnosing meniscus tears of the knee and rotator cuff tears of the shoulder.
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Arthroscope An instrument used to visualize the inside of a joint cavity.
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Arthroscapy A surgical examination of the internal structure of a joint by means of viewing through the arthroscope. This procedure can be used to remove or repair damaged tissue or as a diagnostic procedure in order to inspect the extent of any damage or confirm a diagnosis.
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Aspiration The withdrawal of fluid from a body cavity by means of a suction or siphonage apparatus, such as a syringe.
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Atrophy To shrivel or shrink from disuse, as in muscular atrophy.
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Avascular Necrosis Death of a part due to lack of circulation.
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Avulsion The tearing away, forcibly, of a part or structure.
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Baker's Cyst Localized swelling of a bursa sac in the posterior knee as a result of fluid that has escaped from the knee capsule. A Baker's cyst indicates that there is a trauma inside the knee joint that lead to excessive fluid production.
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Bennett's Fracture A fracture and dislocation of the base of the first metacarpal, the thumb.
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Bone Scan An imaging procedure in which a radioactive-labelled substance is injected into the body to determine the status of a bone injury.
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Bursa A fluid-filled sac that is located in areas where friction is likely to occur, then minimizes the friction; for example, between tendon and bone.
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Capsule Enclosing structure surrounding a joint, containing ligaments which stabilize that joint.
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Chondral Fracture Fracture to the chondral (cartilaginous) surfaces of bone.
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Chondromalacia Roughening of the articular cartilage. Best known for the roughening of the underside of the patella, which can occur in any patellofemoral injury.
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Coccyx The "tail bone"; a group of four vertebrae that are fused together, located at the terminal end of the spine.
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Computed Tomography (CT) Method of visualizing the body's soft tissues. Using X-Rays with the beam passing repeatedly through the body part, the CT scans while a computer calculates tissue absorption at each point scanned.
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Concentric Muscle Contraction
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A shortening of the muscle as it develops tension and contracts to move a resistance.
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Congenital Existing before birth; to be born with.
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Conjunctivitis Inflammation of the membrane lining the eyelids and covering the eyeball. Contractures - Abnormal, usually permanent contraction of a muscle due to atrophy of muscle fibers, extensive scar tissue over a joint, or other factors.
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Costochondral Cartilage that separates the bones within the rib cage.
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Cryotherapy A treatment with use of cold.
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Cyst Abnormal sac containing liquid or semi-solid matter.
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Debridement Removal of non-healthy tissues and foreign material from a wound or burn to prevent infection and permit healing.
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Degenerative Joint
Disease
Changes in the joint surfaces as a result of repetitive trauma.
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Deltoid Ligament Ligament that connects the tibia to bones of the medial aspect of the foot and is primarily responsible for stability of the ankle on the medial side.
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Deltoid Muscles at the top of the arm, below the shoulder, responsible for shoulder motions.
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Disc, Intervertebral A flat, rounded plate between each vertebrae of the spine. The disc consists of a thick fiber ring which surrounds a soft gel-like interior. It functions as a cushion and shock absorber for the spinal column.
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Eccentric Muscle Contraction An overall lengthening of the muscle as it develops tension and contracts to control motion performed by an outside force; of times referred to a "negative" contraction in weight training.
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Eccymosis Bleeding into the surface tissue below the skin, resulting in a "black and blue" effect.
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Edema Accumulation of fluid in organs and tissues of the body; swelling.Effusion - Accumulation of fluid, or the fluid itself, in various spaces in the body. Commonly, the knee has an effusion after an injury.
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Electrical Galvanic Stimulation (EGS) An electrical therapeutic modality that sends current to the body at select voltages and frequencies in order to stimulate pain receptors, disperse edema, or neutralize muscle spasms among other functional apllications.
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Electromyogram (EMG) Test to determine nerve function.
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Epicondylitis Inflammation in the elbow due to overuse.
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Ethyl Chloride "Cold spray" or "freeze", a chemical coolant sprayed onto an injury site to produce a local, mild anaesthesia.
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External Rotation Lateral movement of a joint or extremity to the outside.Fascia - Connective sheath of fibrous tissue and fat which unites the skin to the underlying tissue.
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Fibula Smaller of the two bones in the lower leg; runs from knee to the ankle along the outside of the lower leg.
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Fracture Breach in continuity of a bone. Types of fractures include simple, compound, comminuted, greenstick, incomplete, impacted, longitudinal, oblique, stress or transverse.
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Gamekeeper's Thumb Ulnar collateral ligament tear of the metacarpophalangeal joint (thumb).
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Glenohumeral The shoulder girdle; consists of the glenoid capsule, head of the humerus and labrum. The type of joint that allows 360-degree motion, a "ball and socket" joint.
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Glemoid Scapula cavity into which the head of the humerus fits to form the shoulder girdle.
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Grade One Injury A mild injury in which ligament, tendon, or other musculoskelatal tissue may have been stretched or contused, but not torn or otherwise disrupted.
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Grade Two Injury A moderate injury when musculoskeletal tissue has been partially, but not totally torn which causes appreciable limitation in function of the injured tissue.
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Grade Three Injury A severe injury in which tissue has been significantly, and in some cases totally, torn or otherwise disrupted causing a virtual total loss of function.
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Heat Cramps Painful muscle spasms of the arms or legs caused by excessive body heat and depletion of fluids or electrolytes.
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Hematoma Tumor-like mass produced by an accumulation of coagulated blood in a cavity.
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Humerus Bone of the upper arm that runs from the shoulder to the elbow.
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Hyperextension Extreme extension of a limb or body part.
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Illiotibial Band A thick, wide fascial layer that runs from the ilia crest to the knee joint and is occasionally inflamed as a result of excessive running.
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Impingement Syndrome Pinching together of the supraspinatus muscle and other soft tissue in the shoulder. The most common (throwing) arm injury, which represents many pathologies and generally involves supraspinatus overuse.
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Intermittent Compression Pump Therapeutic modality using an air pump to send air into a sleeve worn over an injury, on an intermittent basis, to disperse edema and swelling at the injury.
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Internal Rotation Rotation of a joint or extremity medially, to the inside.
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Interosseus Membrane Uniting membrane between the tibia and fibula that forms a collagenous fibrous tissue. It has two functions: to serve as an origin for many of the muscles of the lower leg, and to transmit stress from the tibia to the fibula.
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Isokinetic Exercise Form of active resistive exercise in which the speed of limb movement is controlled by a preset limiting machine, such as Cybex or Biodex.
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Isometric Contraction Muscular contraction in which tension is developed but no mechanical work is done (no appreciable joint movement and the overall length of the muscle stays the same).
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Isotonic Contraction A concentric or eccentric muscular contraction that results in movement of a joint or body part, as in lifting a weight.
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Labrum (Labrum Glenoidule)
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Glenoid cavity cartilage in the shoulder, a lip-like structure.
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Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL) Ligament of the knee along the lateral aspect that connects the femur to the fibula. It provides lateral stability to the joint.
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Ligament Fibrous tissue band that connects bone to cartilage and supports and strengthens joints.
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Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Imaging procedure in which a radio frequency pulse causes certain electrical elements of the injured tissue to react to this pulse and through this process a computer display and permanent film establish a visual image. MRI does not require radiation and is very useful in the diagnosis of soft tissue, disc and meniscus injuries.
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Malleolus Rounded projection on either side of the ankle joint; the lateral malleolus is the fibula and the medial malleolus is the tibia.
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Mallet Finger
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Finger tip injury in which the extensor tendon is avulsed off the distal phalanx.
Maximal Aerobic Power (MAX VO2)
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Maximal volume of oxygen consumed per unit of time.
Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL)
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Ligament of knee along the medial aspect that connects the femur to the joint.
Meniscectomy An intra-articular surgical procedure of the knee by which all or part of the damaged meniscus is removed.
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Metacarpals Five long bones of the hand, running from the wrist to the fingers.
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Metatarsals Five long bones of the foot, running from the ankle to the toes.
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Morton's Neuroma Involves the nerves and is usually the result of a trauma to the foot, causing inflammation and sharp pain, usually between the third and fourth toes.
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Morton's Toe A hereditary condition in which the second toe is longer than the first toe. This can cause mechanical imbalances which produce pain with weight bearing.
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Myositis Inflammation of the muscle.
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Myositis Ossificans Traumatica
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A benign ossification, usually following severe trauma to a large muscle mass.
Neuritis Inflammation of a nerve.
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Olecranon Process Bony projection of the ulna at the tip of the elbow.
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One Repetition Maximum The maximum amount of weight that can be lifted by the player in a particular exercise at one time. This is used as a strength testing technique.
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Orthotic Any device applied to or around the body in the care of physical impairment or disability, commonly used to control foot mechanics.
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Osteochondritis Dessicans A piece of bone and/or cartilage loosened from its attachment after trauma and a cause of a lession.
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Parasthesia Sensation of numbness or tingling, indicating nerve irritation.
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Peroneal Muscles Group of muscles of the lateral lower leg that are responsible for everting the ankle. Tendons of these three muscles are vital to the stability of the ankle and foot.
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Phalanx Any bone of the fingers or toes; plural in phalanges.
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Phlebitis Inflammation of a vein
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Phonophoresis The technique of driving whole molecules of medication with ultrasound.
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Plantar Fascia The tight band of fibrous tissue beneath the arch of the foot.
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Plantar Fascilitis Inflammation of the plantar fascia; associated with overuse or acute foot injury.
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Plantarflexion Ankle motion such that the toes are pointed toward the ground.
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Plica Fold of the tissue in the joint capsule and common result of knee injury.
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Pneumothorax A collection of air or gas in the pleural space causing the lungs to collapse.
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Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) A primary stabilizing ligament of the knee that provides significant stability and prevents displacement of the tibia backward within the knee joint. A complete tear of this ligament necessitating reconstruction could require up to 12 months of rehabilitation.
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Progressive Resistance Exercise (PRE) An approach to exercise whereby the load or resistance to the muscle is applied by some mechanical means and is quantitatively and progressively increased over time.
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Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)
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An approach to therapeutic exercise based on the principles of functional human anatomy and neurophysology.
Radius Forearm bone on the thumb side.
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Referred Pain Pain felt in an undamaged area of body away from the actual injury.
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Rotator Cuff Comprised of four muscles in the shoulder area that can be irritated by overuse. The muscles are the supraspinatus (most commonly injured), infraspinatus, teres minor and subscapularis.
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Rotator Cuff Impingement Syndrome A microtrauma or overuse injury caused by stress. The four stages are: 1) tendentious with temporary thickening of the bursa and rotator cuff, 2) fiber dissociation in the tendon with a permanent thickening of the bursa and scar formation, 3) A partial rotator cuff tear of less than 1 cm. and 4) a complete tear of 1cm. or more.
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SC Joint Sternoclavicular joint; articulation of the collarbone with the sternum.
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Sacroiliac Junction of the sacrum with the hip bone.
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Sacrum Group of five fused vertebrae located just below the lumbar vertebrae of the low back.
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Scapula Shoulder blade.
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Sciatica Irritation of the sciatic nerve resulting in pain or tingling down the inside of the leg.
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Sciatic Nerve Major nerve that carries impulses for muscular action and sensations between the low back and thigh and lower leg; it is the longest nerve in the body.
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Shin Splint A catch-all syndrome describing pain in the shin that is not a fracture or tumor and cannot be defined otherwise.
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Soft Corn A corn, softened by moisture, found beneath the toes rather than the upper surface of the toes.
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Spleen Large, solid organ responsible for the normal production and destruction of blood cells.
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Spondylitis Inflammation of one or more vertebrae.
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Spondylolisthesis Forward displacement of one vertebrae over another below it due to a developmental defect in the vertebrae.
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Spondylosis Abnormal vetebral fixation or immobility.
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Sprain Injury resuling from the stretch or twist of the joint and causes various degrees of stretch or tear of a ligament or other soft tissue at the joint.
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Strain Injury resulting from a pull or torsion to the muscle or tendon that causes various degrees of stretch or tear to the muscle or tendon tissue.
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Stress Fracture A hair-line type of break in a bone caused by overuse.
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Stress X-Ray A continual X-Ray taken when a portion of the body is stressed to its maximum in order to determine joint stability. This is a test utilized in some ankle injuries.
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Subluxation Partial dislocation of a joint. The term usually implies that the joint can return to its normal position without formal reduction.
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Synovial Fluid Lubricates joints and tendons produced in synovium or the inner lining of a joint.
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Synovitis Inflammation of the synovial lining of a joint.
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Talus The ankle bone that articulates with the tibia and fibula to form the ankle joint.
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Target Heart Rate A pre-determined pulse obtained during exercise when circulation in working at full-efficient capabilities. Tarsals - Group of seven bones of the foot consisting of the calcaneus, talus, cuboid and three cuneiform bones.
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Tendinitis Tendon and / or tendon sheath inflammation, caused by chronic overuse or sudden injury.
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Tendon Tissue that connects muscle to bone.
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Tenosynovitis Swelling of a tendon sheath caused by calcium deposits, repeated strain or trauma.
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Thoracic
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Group of twelve vetebrae located in the thorax and articulates with the twelve ribs.
Thoracic Outlet Compression Syndrome
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A nerovascular disorder of the upper extremity common in throwing.
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Tibia Larger of the two bones of the lower leg and is the weight-bearing bone of the shin.
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Tomograph An X-Ray apparatus that demonstrates an organ or tissue at a particular depth.
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Trachea The windpipe.
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Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulator (TENS) An electrical modality that sends a mild current through pads at the injury site which stimulates the brain to release the natural analgesic, endorphin.
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Transverse Process Small lateral projection off the right and left side of each vertebrae that functions as an attachment site for muscles and ligaments of the spine.
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Trapezius Flat, triangular muscle covering the posterior surface of the neck and shoulder.
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Ulna Forearm bone that runs from the tip of the elbow to the little finger side of the wrist.
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Ulnar Nerve Nerve in the elbow commonly irritated from excessive throwing.
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Zygoma The cheekbone.
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NOTE: This list is not meant to be all inclusive, nor should it be used as a substitute for a physician's diagnosis and / or description of an injury or illness.

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